Technical Services and Paste Modification

Technical Services for Metallization Pastes

Heraeus focuses on providing the optimal solutions for individual customer’s metallization needs. This includes making recommendations regarding cell design and layout, paste selection, as well as printing and firing optimization. We either travel to our customers’ sites or work in the in-house Heraeus labs to help develop individual solutions. Paste modification laboratories in China and Taiwan allow customer-specific paste modifications.

The following processes and measurements can be performed in our technical service centers:

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  • Solar I/V- characterization (FF, Eff., Rs, Rsh, etc.)
  • Dark IV- characterization (Ps-Eff., Jo1, Jo2, ideality factor, etc.)
  • Other advanced characterization available
  • Sheet resistance
  • Line resistance
  • Contact resistance
  • Aspect Ratio
Printing of Silverpaste
  • All current deposition techniques (Single Print, Dual Print, Double Print, Dispensing etc.)
  • Various screen and stencil types (Hybrid, V-mesh, stainless steel etc.)
  • A variety of printing layouts (various finger count and line widths)
  • Different squeegee types (Triflex, Carbon, Diamond etc.)
Firing of Photovoltaic Silver Paste
  • Great expertise and experience in firing optimization
  • State-of-the-art firing equipment from nameable suppliers
  • Different firing profiles (such as high/low BOP, SPIKE)
Soldering and adhesion testing
  • Soldering equipment suitable to replicate customer processes
  • Different soldering heads available (6-Pin, 12-Pin)
  • A variety of soldering ribbons (Pb free, Pb containing etc.)
  • Various soldering fluxes (Halide free, Halide containing)

Technical services help to optimize production processes and yields. Paste modification helps creating tailor-made customer solutions. Our overall goal is to maximize the value of our customers’ cells by helping them increase cell efficiency at a lower cost-per-Wp.

Heraeus technical service centers are located in all key markets:

  • China (Shanghai)
  • Taiwan (Taoyuan)
  • Japan (Tokyo)
  • Singapore
  • Germany (Hanau)
  • United States (West Conshohocken)

Paste Modification Laboratories

Our technical service centers have state-of-the-art laboratories that allow modifying paste formulations. The technical service centers are also equipped to print and fire wafers using a variety of equipment to replicate the customers’ metallization processes. There is also a comprehensive set of characterization equipment available that allows to test all relevant parameters of a finished cell.

Each solar cell producer has a unique cell design and manufacturing process, whereas key feature of differentiation are:

  • The number of finger lines
  • Line width and shape
  • The number of busbars

By modifying our pastes for your manufacturing process, optimum results are ensured.

Paste modification laboratories are located in the following sites:

  • China (Shanghai)
  • Taiwan (Taoyuan)
  • Japan (Tokyo)
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